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Marketing and Branding Research Researchers whose knowledge, skills, expertise, and visions bear broadly on branding and marketing are cordially invited to submit research papers to the Marketing and Branding Research.  The Marketing and Branding Research publish open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The remaining journals offer a choice of licenses. All Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust funded authors...
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Crude Oil Price, Interest Rate and Unemployment Nexus in Nigeria: An Application of Toda and Yamamoto Long-Run Causality Procedure

Rabiu Maijama’a; Kabiru Saidu Musa

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60326

This study aims to examine the relationship between crude oil price, interest rate and the
unemployment rate in Nigeria using times series data for the 1991-2019 periods. The
stationarity property of the series was examined using Augmented Dickey and Fuller
(1979) and Elliot, Rothenberg and Stock’s (1996) unit root test. The outcomes of
Augmented Dickey and Fuller indicated a mixture of an order of integration among the
series while Elliot et al.’s (1996) unit root test revealed that all the series are stationary at
the first difference and therefore are said to integrate of order one. The Toda and
Yamamoto long-run granger causality indicated that one-way causality exists flowing
from crude oil price to unemployment rate, unemployment rate to interest rate, population
growth to the unemployment rate, crude oil price to interest rate and population growth
to interest rate alongside two-way causality flowing from population growth to crude oil
price. Therefore, based on the empirical outcomes we recommended that labour will serve
as an efficient substituting factor of production for energy and capital in the case of the
Nigerian economy and Nigerian government should develop both industrial and non
crude oil sectors to create employment opportunities for the unemployed teeming
population as well as increasing the country’s export.

Factor Analysis of Government Performance and Tax Morale in Nigeria

Lateef Ayodele Agbetunde; Lateef Babatunde Adedokun; Musa Olatunji Dawodu

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 17-30
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60327

The paper made a factor analysis of the variables that shape the tax morale of individuals in
developing economies as well as the factors that citizens considered to be important in
assessing government performance. Data from the Afrobarometer Survey 6 Questionnaire
administered on Nigerians was used for the analysis. Desk review of several journal articles
was made to extract the relevant factors used for the study. A collection of variables offered
in the literature as determinants of tax morale and the aspects of government that are measured
when assessing government performance were synthesized as measurement parameters. Both
exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using principal component
analysis. The study established that the data from Afrobarometer Survey 6 on Nigeria was
found reliable with adequate goodness of fits, which is significant for any study. The paper
found six of the items on the questionnaire suitable to measure tax morale and ten other items
suitable as measures of government performance under three dimensions as an improvement
on economic issues, infrastructure provision, and social issues. The paper recommends that
the government and other policymakers should pay sufficient attention to tax morale and the
performance of government, especially adequate provision of food and improving the standard
of living among the poor citizens before attempts at controlling crime.

Online Shopping Tendency and Customer Trust in Nigerian Service Sector

Idongesit Eshiett

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60330

Conventional shopping affords the customer the convenience of not losing their monies to
hackers and scammers and carrying out a transaction in a familiar shop environment,
irrespective of the shop location. The unprecedented development in telecommunication/
Information Communications Technology (ICT) has made direct purchase and sale of goods
and services possible worldwide using the Internet, an online shopping website in Nigeria. For
example, many customers and prospects engage in multi-billion Naira transactions daily in
Jumia.com.ng and konga.com. The essence of trust in this platform becomes inevitable, based
on the virtual nature of all transactions. This study aims to examine the effect of customer trust
and purchase decisions on online shopping in Nigeria. The study clarifies that internet hopping
could flourish easily where there is less risk factor, proof of effective service quality delivery,
and unbridled evidence of trust in the service providers' ability to deliver. The descriptive
methodology was adopted for the study, and 277 questionnaires were administered to
respondents, mainly online customers of jumia.com.ng. Correlation analysis was used to
analyze the underlying variables of the study. The results revealed that there is a positive
interrelationship between online shopping and trust in Nigerian. The study concludes that online
service providers need to entrench trust amongst customers and exclude all risk factors that
could be inimical to the growth and development of online hopping in Nigeria

The impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty: A case study of mobile phone industry

Adel Pourdehghan

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 44-63
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60184

In todays highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the success of the companies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To evaluate the model and hypotheses, data collection was carried out through surveying 384 mobile phone users. For data analysis and verification of the model, structural equation modeling approach (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used and based on the results of the path analysis, the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated. Results indicated the positive impact of products elements, distribution channels, and promotional activities on brand loyalty. Also, the findings showed that indexes of satisfaction and trust which are considered as mediating variables between marketing mix and brand loyalty had positive and significant impact on brand loyalty in the mobile phone industry.

The impact of product’s packaging color on customers’ buying preferences under time pressure

Saad Ahmed Javed; Sara Javed

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 4-14
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60293

This research aims to test whether product’s packaging color influences customers’ purchasing preferences or not and does time pressure moderates this relationship? It studied the importance of color in determining customers’ buying preferences when they have limited time to do shopping. This study revealed that buying preference of a customer is relatively more dependent on the color scheme than on time constraint. However, time pressure was an important moderating factor which influenced the effect of packaging colors on customers’ purchasing preferences. This study emphasized that companies cannot afford to ignore the significance of time constraints and color scheme of the products on customers’ buying behavior.

Repurchase Intention: The Effect of Service Quality, System Quality, Information Quality, and Customer Satisfaction as Mediating Role: A PLS Approach of M-Commerce Ride Hailing Service in Vietnam

Nguyen Ngoc Duy Phuong; Tran Thi Dai g

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 78-91
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60463

This study employs DeLone and McLean’s information
system success model to measure the effect of service quality, system quality, information quality on repurchase intention of the
smartphone-based ride hailing service in Vietnam. Data were gathered by
surveying 427 customers using Grab and Uber services. PLS
was employed to analyze the measurement and structural model. The statistical
results supported all five proposed hypotheses. The study confirmed that
electronic service quality of information system were significant predictors of
overall perceived service quality. Additionally, this
study reported a significant positive effect of perceived service quality
and customer satisfaction on repurchase intention. The
study also confirmed the relationships of the three variables representing the
electronic service quality on the overall service quality, which directly
effects customer satisfaction, considering a more comprehensive model for
service in m-commerce context. This paper extends the knowledge on the service
factors and customer satisfaction of repurchase intention.

Air Transport - A Source of Competitive Advantages of the Region

Keranka Nedeva; Evgeni Genchev

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 206-216
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60246

This study investigates the relationship between the development of the air transport and the economic development of the Bulgarian regions and the improvement of its competitiveness over the period of 2000–2016. The timeliness of the problem is related to the contradictory impact of the air transport on the economic effects of aviation development and related socio-economic effects at local and global level. The purpose of the report was to identify the impact of the air transport on the economic development of the region. In this connection, the following tasks have been set: to monitor trends in the development of the air passenger transport sector; to determine the impact of the average annual income per capita on the passenger flow; to establish the impact of passenger flows on the average annual income of the population as an indicator of the sustainable development of the region. The aim of the article was to establish the link between the passenger flow and the gross domestic product of the region. Economic data processing methods for the 10-year period were used through the Gretl program. The data obtained is evidence of the positive impact of air transport development on the competitiveness of the region and its steady social-economic growth.

Creative industries value chain: The value chain logic in supply chain relationships

Emilia Madudová

Marketing and Branding Research, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 227-235
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60236

The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper look into value chain logic in supply chain relationships in a creative industries value chains. In recent years, value has been recognized as a key factor in better understanding of consumer behavior and gaining a competitive advantage. In a value chain, added value should be defined at every step of the chain. There should be defined activity which adds value as well as the activity that subtracts any value. The total value can be then calculated as the sum of the total value built up all throughout the value chain. Paper mostly analyses creative industries of advertising, architecture, and design. The presented model describes and analyzes the industry participants, value chain processes, support and related environment, and evaluates the relationship of stakeholders. The paper also takes into account the creation of value chain approach that describes the vertical and horizontal linkages. The chain of values represents the coordinated set of kinds of activity which create value for the enterprise, beginning from initial sources of raw materials for suppliers of this enterprise up to the finished goods delivered to the end user including service of the consumer. The value chain conception is important for the identification and development of the enterprise. The value creation activities can be a core competitive advantage which center on fostering relationships with key actors who can derive benefits from each other’s value chain. 

The impact of product’s packaging color on customers’ buying preferences under time pressure

Saad Ahmed Javed; Sara Javed

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 4-14
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60293

This research aims to test whether product’s packaging color influences customers’ purchasing preferences or not and does time pressure moderates this relationship? It studied the importance of color in determining customers’ buying preferences when they have limited time to do shopping. This study revealed that buying preference of a customer is relatively more dependent on the color scheme than on time constraint. However, time pressure was an important moderating factor which influenced the effect of packaging colors on customers’ purchasing preferences. This study emphasized that companies cannot afford to ignore the significance of time constraints and color scheme of the products on customers’ buying behavior.

Current challenges in distribution channels of cultural goods and services

Razieh Fayaz; Maryam Azizinia

Marketing and Branding Research, 2016, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60219

Nowadays, one product that has a well qualified design will not have expected utility if it cannot be available at the appropriate time and place to its buyers. Thus, marketing managers and official sales always try to find the more efficient and modern methods of distribution through investigating the transfer methods of goods. Appropriate decision will lead to the enhancement of transfer speed, convenience of customers, and reduction of costs. One of the main tools of marketing is the efficient distribution system. Since cultural products have a determining role in conveyance of thoughts, values, and social norms and transmit cultural values and messages with themselves, their distribution has a great importance. This study aimed to investigate the current challenges in distribution channels of cultural goods and services. Some of these challenges were being traditional, the length of the channel, and the number of intermediaries.                                                                                

The impact of relationship marketing on customer loyalty enhancement (Case study: Kerman Iran insurance company)

Abdolaziz Abtin; Mostafa Pouramiri

Marketing and Branding Research, 2016, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 41-49
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60203

Nowadays, only those tradings that just focus on the effectiveness of the marketing mix elements can shift their direction towards relationship marketing and establishing effective relationship management with customers. In todays competitive world, customers are in the center of companies’ attention and their satisfaction is the main factor in gaining competitive advantage. The fundamental prerequisite for achieving customers’ satisfaction is to fully meet or exceed their needs, wants, desires, expectations, and their willingness to purchase products. To gain competitive advantage, the companies should pay more attention to customers’ needs and meet them better than their rivals. This paper aims to investigate the impact of relationship marketing on customer loyalty enhancement in Kerman Iran insurance company. This study was carried out through a survey method using questionnaires as the main instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between loyalty as dependent variable and trust, satisfaction, management, communication, and competence as independent variables and revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between variables. 

The effect of real exchange rate on unemployment

Zahra Bakhshi; Mehrzad Ebrahimi

Marketing and Branding Research, 2016, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 4-13
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60281

Unemployment is one of the problems that global economics, especially the economy of
developing countries such as Iran is faced with. Therefore, there have been many studies to
investigate the variables which affect unemployment in macroeconomics. Considering
exchange rate volatility in recent years which have affected most of major variables of
economy in Iran, this study tried to investigate the relationship between exchange rate and
unemployment in Iran using the annual data of 30 years (from 1981 to 2012). To achieve the
objectives of the study, autoregressive econometric model with distributed lag was used to
assess the relationship between real exchange rate and unemployment. This model consisted
of five main variables, namely unemployment rate, exchange rate, export, import, and gross
domestic product. The results of the study demonstrated that economic growth had a
significant and positive effect on unemployment. In addition, it was shown that there was a
negative relationship between unemployment and exchange rate. 

The impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty: A case study of mobile phone industry

Adel Pourdehghan

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 44-63
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60184

In todays highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the success of the companies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To evaluate the model and hypotheses, data collection was carried out through surveying 384 mobile phone users. For data analysis and verification of the model, structural equation modeling approach (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used and based on the results of the path analysis, the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated. Results indicated the positive impact of products elements, distribution channels, and promotional activities on brand loyalty. Also, the findings showed that indexes of satisfaction and trust which are considered as mediating variables between marketing mix and brand loyalty had positive and significant impact on brand loyalty in the mobile phone industry.

Publisher: Canadian Institute For Knowledge Development

Email:  MBRinfo@cikd.ca

Editor-in-chief: Carlos M. Rodriguez Neira

ISSN: 2476-3160