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Marketing and Branding Research Researchers whose knowledge, skills, expertise, and visions bear broadly on branding and marketing are cordially invited to submit research papers to the Marketing and Branding Research.  The Marketing and Branding Research publish open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The remaining journals offer a choice of licenses. All Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust funded authors...
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Air Transport - A Source of Competitive Advantages of the Region

Keranka Nedeva; Evgeni Genchev

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 206-216
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60246

This study investigates the relationship between the development of the air transport and the economic development of the Bulgarian regions and the improvement of its competitiveness over the period of 2000–2016. The timeliness of the problem is related to the contradictory impact of the air transport on the economic effects of aviation development and related socio-economic effects at local and global level. The purpose of the report was to identify the impact of the air transport on the economic development of the region. In this connection, the following tasks have been set: to monitor trends in the development of the air passenger transport sector; to determine the impact of the average annual income per capita on the passenger flow; to establish the impact of passenger flows on the average annual income of the population as an indicator of the sustainable development of the region. The aim of the article was to establish the link between the passenger flow and the gross domestic product of the region. Economic data processing methods for the 10-year period were used through the Gretl program. The data obtained is evidence of the positive impact of air transport development on the competitiveness of the region and its steady social-economic growth.

Pleasing Scents: The Effect of Gender Incongruent Scents on the Repurchase Intention of the Consumers

Zahra Afaq; Shahab Aziz; Amir Gulzar Sindhu; Sajid Bashir

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 217-232
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60257

The current research aims to outspread the sensory marketing research by (1) examining whether gender incongruent scents evoke nostalgia in the customers and secondly, by exploring if nostalgia can inflict feelings of pleasure and arousal and thus drives a consumer to develop a repurchase intention. The scent chosen was a masculine scent, targeted at female consumers of clothing outlets. A scent pretest was carried out to choose the most masculine, pleasing scent followed by an experiment conducted at the Malls of Twin Cities in which 288 participants participated. The data analysis was carried out using variance based partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results confirmed that gender incongruent scents may evoke nostalgia. Moreover, creating feelings of pleasure and arousal leads a consumer to develop a positive repurchase intention. The findings of the study are important for the marketers to consider atmospheric cues as effective marketing strategies for the customer engagement in the retail settings. The research signifies the importance of scents in developing pleasure and arousal in a consumer; however, this alone is not important to develop a repurchase intention. Gender incongruent scents in addition to other ambient cues may prove to be an effective marketing tool for the marketers.

An Investigation into the Effect of Psychological Empowerment on Brand Equity (Case Study: Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch)

Masoud Dehghani

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 233-243
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60320

The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of psychological empowerment on brand equity in Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas branch. The survey-correlational was employed in data collection. The statistical population of this study includes two populations, i.e., professors and staff and students of different colleges. To select the participants, random stratified sampling method using Cochran’s Formula was used. The standard questionnaires of Spreitzer and Mishra (1997) and Kim and Hyun (2011) were used to measure psychological empowerment and brand equity, respectively. The results indicated that all the psychological empowerment dimensions of the staff and professors of the university are valid enough to increase brand equity from the aspect of empowerment indices.

Comparing the Effective Factors of Traditional Archers’ Bow Brand Preferences

Tanyeri Uslu; Merve Yanar Gürce

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 244-250
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60301

The aim of this study is to compare and determine the effective factors of traditional archers’ bow brands preferences from the multicultural perspective. In depth-interviews and focus group studies were conducted with senior and experienced traditional archers from different countries in order to collect the data. Content analysis technique was used to analyze the data and the proposed model was created accordingly. Traditional archers from Turkey and some European countries were participated in this research. According to the results of the analysis; perceived price of brand, customer relationships, product characteristics, and product availability were found as determiners of traditional archers’ bow brand preferences.

The impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty: A case study of mobile phone industry

Adel Pourdehghan

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 44-63
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60184

In todays highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the success of the companies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To evaluate the model and hypotheses, data collection was carried out through surveying 384 mobile phone users. For data analysis and verification of the model, structural equation modeling approach (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used and based on the results of the path analysis, the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated. Results indicated the positive impact of products elements, distribution channels, and promotional activities on brand loyalty. Also, the findings showed that indexes of satisfaction and trust which are considered as mediating variables between marketing mix and brand loyalty had positive and significant impact on brand loyalty in the mobile phone industry.

Repurchase Intention: The Effect of Service Quality, System Quality, Information Quality, and Customer Satisfaction as Mediating Role: A PLS Approach of M-Commerce Ride Hailing Service in Vietnam

Nguyen Ngoc Duy Phuong; Tran Thi Dai g

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 78-91
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60463

This study employs DeLone and McLean’s information
system success model to measure the effect of service quality, system quality, information quality on repurchase intention of the
smartphone-based ride hailing service in Vietnam. Data were gathered by
surveying 427 customers using Grab and Uber services. PLS
was employed to analyze the measurement and structural model. The statistical
results supported all five proposed hypotheses. The study confirmed that
electronic service quality of information system were significant predictors of
overall perceived service quality. Additionally, this
study reported a significant positive effect of perceived service quality
and customer satisfaction on repurchase intention. The
study also confirmed the relationships of the three variables representing the
electronic service quality on the overall service quality, which directly
effects customer satisfaction, considering a more comprehensive model for
service in m-commerce context. This paper extends the knowledge on the service
factors and customer satisfaction of repurchase intention.

Air Transport - A Source of Competitive Advantages of the Region

Keranka Nedeva; Evgeni Genchev

Marketing and Branding Research, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 206-216
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60246

This study investigates the relationship between the development of the air transport and the economic development of the Bulgarian regions and the improvement of its competitiveness over the period of 2000–2016. The timeliness of the problem is related to the contradictory impact of the air transport on the economic effects of aviation development and related socio-economic effects at local and global level. The purpose of the report was to identify the impact of the air transport on the economic development of the region. In this connection, the following tasks have been set: to monitor trends in the development of the air passenger transport sector; to determine the impact of the average annual income per capita on the passenger flow; to establish the impact of passenger flows on the average annual income of the population as an indicator of the sustainable development of the region. The aim of the article was to establish the link between the passenger flow and the gross domestic product of the region. Economic data processing methods for the 10-year period were used through the Gretl program. The data obtained is evidence of the positive impact of air transport development on the competitiveness of the region and its steady social-economic growth.

The impact of product’s packaging color on customers’ buying preferences under time pressure

Saad Ahmed Javed; Sara Javed

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 4-14
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60293

This research aims to test whether product’s packaging color influences customers’ purchasing preferences or not and does time pressure moderates this relationship? It studied the importance of color in determining customers’ buying preferences when they have limited time to do shopping. This study revealed that buying preference of a customer is relatively more dependent on the color scheme than on time constraint. However, time pressure was an important moderating factor which influenced the effect of packaging colors on customers’ purchasing preferences. This study emphasized that companies cannot afford to ignore the significance of time constraints and color scheme of the products on customers’ buying behavior.

Value Co-Creation Drivers and Components in Dynamic Markets

Daniel Marco-Stefan Kleber; Tatjana Volkova

Marketing and Branding Research, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 249-263
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60225

The purpose of this conceptual study is the identification of value co-creation drivers and components and the emphasis of the necessity of value co-creation in today’s dynamic business environments. According to Bingham, Furr, and Eisenhardt (2014), these environments are built on dynamic markets which require interaction and experimentation between strategic focus and flexibility. “Outside the box thinking” or “thinking with no boxes” is vitally important for the value creation process in global markets (Lewis, Andriopoulos, & Smith, 2014). In this article, the role of customers in value co-creation processes and systems will be highlighted. The co-creation of value with customers’ involvement shapes and redefines existing markets and helps to create new market spaces based on the customers’ needs and demands which result in boundless opportunities in a globalized world of ever-changing markets (Bettencourt, Lusch, & Vargo, 2014). This qualitative study is based on content analysis of distinctive value co-creation management studies streams in scientific literaturefrom related research concepts such as consumer service management and innovation management research for ensuring superior customer responsiveness in dynamic markets by embedding the service-dominant logic (SDL) and the job-to-be-done thinking logic (JTBD). The article gives an overview over perspectives, conceptualizations, and application approaches of value co-creation with customers. In addition, multidimensional approaches of value co-creation are discussed and spheres of value co-creation are formulated. At last, critical drivers for delivering value co-creation are highlighted.

The impact of product’s packaging color on customers’ buying preferences under time pressure

Saad Ahmed Javed; Sara Javed

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 4-14
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60293

This research aims to test whether product’s packaging color influences customers’ purchasing preferences or not and does time pressure moderates this relationship? It studied the importance of color in determining customers’ buying preferences when they have limited time to do shopping. This study revealed that buying preference of a customer is relatively more dependent on the color scheme than on time constraint. However, time pressure was an important moderating factor which influenced the effect of packaging colors on customers’ purchasing preferences. This study emphasized that companies cannot afford to ignore the significance of time constraints and color scheme of the products on customers’ buying behavior.

Current challenges in distribution channels of cultural goods and services

Razieh Fayaz; Maryam Azizinia

Marketing and Branding Research, 2016, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60219

Nowadays, one product that has a well qualified design will not have expected utility if it cannot be available at the appropriate time and place to its buyers. Thus, marketing managers and official sales always try to find the more efficient and modern methods of distribution through investigating the transfer methods of goods. Appropriate decision will lead to the enhancement of transfer speed, convenience of customers, and reduction of costs. One of the main tools of marketing is the efficient distribution system. Since cultural products have a determining role in conveyance of thoughts, values, and social norms and transmit cultural values and messages with themselves, their distribution has a great importance. This study aimed to investigate the current challenges in distribution channels of cultural goods and services. Some of these challenges were being traditional, the length of the channel, and the number of intermediaries.                                                                                

The impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty: A case study of mobile phone industry

Adel Pourdehghan

Marketing and Branding Research, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 44-63
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2015.60184

In todays highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the success of the companies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To evaluate the model and hypotheses, data collection was carried out through surveying 384 mobile phone users. For data analysis and verification of the model, structural equation modeling approach (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used and based on the results of the path analysis, the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated. Results indicated the positive impact of products elements, distribution channels, and promotional activities on brand loyalty. Also, the findings showed that indexes of satisfaction and trust which are considered as mediating variables between marketing mix and brand loyalty had positive and significant impact on brand loyalty in the mobile phone industry.

The effect of real exchange rate on unemployment

Zahra Bakhshi; Mehrzad Ebrahimi

Marketing and Branding Research, 2016, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 4-13
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60281

Unemployment is one of the problems that global economics, especially the economy of
developing countries such as Iran is faced with. Therefore, there have been many studies to
investigate the variables which affect unemployment in macroeconomics. Considering
exchange rate volatility in recent years which have affected most of major variables of
economy in Iran, this study tried to investigate the relationship between exchange rate and
unemployment in Iran using the annual data of 30 years (from 1981 to 2012). To achieve the
objectives of the study, autoregressive econometric model with distributed lag was used to
assess the relationship between real exchange rate and unemployment. This model consisted
of five main variables, namely unemployment rate, exchange rate, export, import, and gross
domestic product. The results of the study demonstrated that economic growth had a
significant and positive effect on unemployment. In addition, it was shown that there was a
negative relationship between unemployment and exchange rate. 

Providing the Applicable Model of Training Needs Assessment in Organizations

Ahmadreza Fazel Anvari

Marketing and Branding Research, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 322-335
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60393

Defining the training needs in organizations is the most important factor in human capital development. The aim of this study was to provide the applicable model of training needs assessment in organizations. The population of the study consisted of 460 employees in some organizations. Simple random sampling was used and the sample size was estimated 210 people using Morgan table. Based on the literature, research, ISO 10015 standard and applicable experience in this area, key indicators of training needs assessment in four dimensions, namely job competencies, organizational objectives, problem solving, and developmental gaps were identified. Using the experts’ opinion, a researcher-made questionnaire consisted of 12 items was developed as the instrument for data collection and the data were analyzed by SPSS. The results of the analysis indicated that all the research objectives were supported. As observed, among the dimensions of model, job competencies and organizational objectives had the highest and the lowest mean, respectively. Also, the findings of the paper indicated how to define the training needs according to this model with practical examples. In addition, defining the training needs according to this model can be used in organizations, industries, and different business to empower the human capitals.

Publisher: Canadian Institute For Knowledge Development

Email:  MBRinfo@cikd.ca

Editor-in-chief: Çağrı Bulut

ISSN: 2476-3160