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Pleasing Scents: The Effect of Gender Incongruent Scents on the Repurchase Intention of the Consumers

Zahra Afaq; Shahab Aziz; Amir Gulzar Sindhu; Sajid Bashir

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 217-232
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60257

The current research aims to outspread the sensory marketing research by (1) examining whether gender incongruent scents evoke nostalgia in the customers and secondly, by exploring if nostalgia can inflict feelings of pleasure and arousal and thus drives a consumer to develop a repurchase intention. The scent chosen was a masculine scent, targeted at female consumers of clothing outlets. A scent pretest was carried out to choose the most masculine, pleasing scent followed by an experiment conducted at the Malls of Twin Cities in which 288 participants participated. The data analysis was carried out using variance based partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results confirmed that gender incongruent scents may evoke nostalgia. Moreover, creating feelings of pleasure and arousal leads a consumer to develop a positive repurchase intention. The findings of the study are important for the marketers to consider atmospheric cues as effective marketing strategies for the customer engagement in the retail settings. The research signifies the importance of scents in developing pleasure and arousal in a consumer; however, this alone is not important to develop a repurchase intention. Gender incongruent scents in addition to other ambient cues may prove to be an effective marketing tool for the marketers.

Comparing the Effective Factors of Traditional Archers’ Bow Brand Preferences

Tanyeri Uslu; Merve Yanar Gürce

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 244-250
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60301

The aim of this study is to compare and determine the effective factors of traditional archers’ bow brands preferences from the multicultural perspective. In depth-interviews and focus group studies were conducted with senior and experienced traditional archers from different countries in order to collect the data. Content analysis technique was used to analyze the data and the proposed model was created accordingly. Traditional archers from Turkey and some European countries were participated in this research. According to the results of the analysis; perceived price of brand, customer relationships, product characteristics, and product availability were found as determiners of traditional archers’ bow brand preferences.

An Investigation into the Effect of Psychological Empowerment on Brand Equity (Case Study: Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch)

Masoud Dehghani

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 233-243
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60320

The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of psychological empowerment on brand equity in Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas branch. The survey-correlational was employed in data collection. The statistical population of this study includes two populations, i.e., professors and staff and students of different colleges. To select the participants, random stratified sampling method using Cochran’s Formula was used. The standard questionnaires of Spreitzer and Mishra (1997) and Kim and Hyun (2011) were used to measure psychological empowerment and brand equity, respectively. The results indicated that all the psychological empowerment dimensions of the staff and professors of the university are valid enough to increase brand equity from the aspect of empowerment indices.

Air Transport - A Source of Competitive Advantages of the Region

Keranka Nedeva; Evgeni Genchev

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 206-216
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60246

This study investigates the relationship between the development of the air transport and the economic development of the Bulgarian regions and the improvement of its competitiveness over the period of 2000–2016. The timeliness of the problem is related to the contradictory impact of the air transport on the economic effects of aviation development and related socio-economic effects at local and global level. The purpose of the report was to identify the impact of the air transport on the economic development of the region. In this connection, the following tasks have been set: to monitor trends in the development of the air passenger transport sector; to determine the impact of the average annual income per capita on the passenger flow; to establish the impact of passenger flows on the average annual income of the population as an indicator of the sustainable development of the region. The aim of the article was to establish the link between the passenger flow and the gross domestic product of the region. Economic data processing methods for the 10-year period were used through the Gretl program. The data obtained is evidence of the positive impact of air transport development on the competitiveness of the region and its steady social-economic growth.

Online Evaluation Platforms as a Tools for Enhancing Competitiveness in Healthcare Sector

Róbert Štefko; František Pollák; Nella Svetozarovová

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60372

The paper discusses the issue of utilization of the major online public evaluation platforms as Facebook and Google, more specifically describes the methods and ways of their utilization in the field of healthcare provider with aim to increase competitiveness on subjects operating on this specific sector. The issue of increasing the efficiency and quality of health services has long been proclaimed. There is no coherent plan for measuring the quality and efficiency of healthcare facilities in general. The increasing importance and demands for efficiency and quality is leading to an increase in importance of accurate and specific marketing concepts, desirable also in the process of specific health programs. By thorough and complex analysis of online presence of selected health care providers, represented by the Slovak Teaching Hospitals, relationships between factors were examined in order to identify and describe facts affecting online presence of those entities in the hyper competitive market environment of the Internet. The findings identified by the analysis of online environment were compared between selected platforms. The results of analysis thus providing a comprehensive view on the issue of utilization of online evaluation platforms to increase competitiveness.

Investigating the Situation of Lacquered Wire Kavir Yazd Company in Lifecycle and the Fit between Marketing Strategy and Marketing Mix

Aliakbar Beygiyazdi; Shahnaz Nayebzadeh; Abolfazl Davoodi Roknabadi

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 190-205
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60354

A strategy is the basic pattern of current and planned objectives, operation and allocation of resources, an organizations interactions with the markets, competitors, and other environmental factors. The main focus of marketing strategy is to allocate and coordinate with marketing activities and resources, and to provide operational objectives in terms of a market - specific product. The strategy can determine success in the world of today mega competitive in the life cycle of the organization if properly allocate organizations resources and marketing mix also fit in with this strategy. The aim of this study was to examine the life cycle of Kavir Lacquered Wire of Yazd Company and its status in the companys life cycle and to review the fit between companys marketing strategy and marketing. The judgmental method sampling among managers and experts was applied and the descriptive research which employed questionnaire and survey methods was used to collect the data.  Descriptive statistics showed that this company is in the growth stage of its life cycle and the companys strategic reference points shows that the attack or siege were the main reason of choosing marketing strategy. Data analysis techniques using fuzzy AHP also revealed that the company marketing mix and marketing strategy had only the promotion fit. According to the wire Kavir Yazd Company approach in the context of intelligence capabilities and scientific management; investigating the companys position in the life cycle and also companys strategy and marketing mix will eventually improve manager insight in marketing management.

Higher Education Institutions Embracing Digital & Social Media Marketing: A Case of Top 25 Universities in Asia & Africa

Nerisa N. Paladan

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 159-167
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60254

At the age of the digital world, higher education institutions (HEIs) are challenged to be creative in reaching out and keeping in touch with their stakeholders and target markets that are mostly the young generation. Businesses and institutions like HEIs should be innovative in attracting customers/students using digital and social media marketing. They have to embrace fully digital and social media marketing in realizing their target market and staying connected with them. This research focused on identifying the common digital and social media marketing utilized by the top 25 universities in Asia and Africa, it also assessed the level of adoption of digital technology. Findings revealed that the majority of the top 25 universities in Asia and Africa use Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and YouTube for their digital and social media marketing and they differ in terms of the purposes of its usage and the level of adoption of digital technology. It shows that the collective responses by using digital and social marketing for HEIs are to market their programs and to give information about events and research of the HEIs. However, the majority of the top 25 universities in Asia had already reached fully digital and they use it for visionary production and design for the adoption of digital technology. Furthermore, most of the HEIs are using website design and interface as an essential factor on how to present themselves to their potential students.

Measuring Credit Risk Management and its Impact on Bank Performance in Iran

Azam Ahmadyan

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 168-183
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60427

The concept of credit risk management can be treated as the heart of any commercial banks. It plays the vital role in the performance of a financial institution as it analyzes credit worth ability of borrowers. Each loan without repayment decreases banks’ profit and equity, which in turn may result in bank failure if the bank cannot pay off its liabilities. In this paper, according to existing theoretical and empirical literature, the suitable system was defined for measuring credit risk management. Then, the effect of credit risk management on the profitability and survival of banks in Iran was investigated. For this purpose, model was estimated using panel data method and the financial statements of banks for the period 2005-2016. The results of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between risk management and profitability and bank survivability. The poor credit risk management reduces the profitability and survival of banks.

Energy Dependence of the Solar Business of the European Union and Bulgaria

Noncho Dimitrov

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 184-189
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60374

The energy dependence of the European Union (EU) is a huge concern for the Member States. It`s mostly connected to the increasing dependence on imported energy resources. The ability of the EU to meet the energy needs is very limited. Dependency on imported resources is expected to reach 70% in 2020 and dependence on oil - 90%. Europe`s dependence on imported oil will increase drastically. Almost 100% is the Bulgarian dependence on imports of Russian natural gas and oil. The solar business has a great importance for the future of the entire energy sector. Its investigations will allow us to find the potential opportunities and possible threats of its development and will help us to develop its potential. There are many challenges in front of its development connected with legal frameworks, corporate interests and public pressure. Therefore, a successful adaptation is required to the high requirements of regulators and competitive alternative energy source.

Developing a Measurement Scale of the Use of Mobile Technologies in E-learning: A Structural Equation Model

Hale H. Turhangil Erenler

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 140-150
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60303

Researchers agree that mobile learning implementation requires new pedagogies and successful integration and implementation of technologies into learning needs to be well-planned. In this context, this study first aimed to develop a use of mobile technologies measurement scale and then examined students’ perceptions and opinions of using mobile technologies as part of the E-learning program with data from 786 students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to develop the measurement model; then the structural model for the research was tested using SEM. From the SEM analysis, with one dimension and ten variables, the scale was acceptable and the model explained 42.34 percent of the variance, which is indicative of medium explanatory power. Reliability for the scale was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, which was greater than .80 for Use of Mobile Phones in this study, thus the items were reliable. The results showed that most of the students used the latest smartphone technologies and they generally approved of using these as part of their E-learning program on Moodle learning management system.

Use of Viral Marketing by Universities

Adriana Grencíková; Karol Krajco; Jakub Sokol

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 100-110
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60440

This study is an attempt to use a viral marketing at universities in Slovak and Czech Republics. Social networks have become an everyday part of life. Permanent communication takes place on social networks and it can be used by private companies as well as other organizations. The social network can serve any organization to provide up-to-date information, respond to customer inquiries, and get quick feedback from them, which is a huge asset. Social networks are becoming a means for companies to find their customers opinions about products. This helps to improve products and adapt to current market needs. The aim of this study was to compare the use of social networks by universities as a modern marketing communications tool and to identify the success of social networking. The basic methods were analysis, comparison and evaluation with the Social Scorecard. The final findings suggested the use of viral marketing by universities and the improvement of viral marketing in the area of education.  A marketing strategy that is appropriately chosen and implemented on social networks can be much more successful and more effective than the use of traditional marketing communication tools. 

Repurchase Intention: The Effect of Service Quality, System Quality, Information Quality, and Customer Satisfaction as Mediating Role: A PLS Approach of M-Commerce Ride Hailing Service in Vietnam

Nguyen Ngoc Duy Phuong; Tran Thi Dai g

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 78-91
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60463

This study employs DeLone and McLean’s information
system success model to measure the effect of service quality, system quality, information quality on repurchase intention of the
smartphone-based ride hailing service in Vietnam. Data were gathered by
surveying 427 customers using Grab and Uber services. PLS
was employed to analyze the measurement and structural model. The statistical
results supported all five proposed hypotheses. The study confirmed that
electronic service quality of information system were significant predictors of
overall perceived service quality. Additionally, this
study reported a significant positive effect of perceived service quality
and customer satisfaction on repurchase intention. The
study also confirmed the relationships of the three variables representing the
electronic service quality on the overall service quality, which directly
effects customer satisfaction, considering a more comprehensive model for
service in m-commerce context. This paper extends the knowledge on the service
factors and customer satisfaction of repurchase intention.

Hotel Customer Loyalty: The Effect of Individual’s Similarity to Brand, Lifestyle Congruency and Cultural Brand Asset

Shahnaz Nayebzadeh; Maryam Farmani

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 122-139
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60288

The main aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting on customer loyalty of Mehr chain hotels in Yazd. Independent variables of this study included cultural brand asset, individual’s similarity to brand, lifestyle congruency, intermediate variables of study included brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association, and customer satisfaction, and the dependent variable of study included brand loyalty. The population of this study included Iranian and non-Iranian quests of Mehr chain hotels of Yazd. Simple and stratified random sampling methods were used. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires (325 Persian questionnaires, and 110 English questionnaires) were distributed and gathered.  Data were analyzed using the SPSS 18 Software.  The relationships between variables and factors were confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques using LISREL8.72 software. The results confirmed the impact of cultural brand assets on perceived quality, brand awareness, and brand association. Additionally, it was found that there was significant correlation between brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand association. Perceived quality, brand association, and customer satisfaction also have a positive impact on brand loyalty. Lifestyle congruency and individual’s similarity to brand have impact on customer satisfaction. In this research after investigating the factors affecting on customer loyalty of Mehr chain hotels in Yazd, university sector entered in such research areas until both marketers as well as researchers to use the findings for increasing consumer loyalty.

Economic Effects and Invasion of Low-Cost Carriers on the Bulgarian Air Market

E. Rancheva; T. Petkov; Stela Todorova

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 111-121
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60206

Low cost aviation carriers already occupied a significant share of the Bulgarian aviation market for passenger transportation. The reality is that, thanks to the emergence of low-cost carriers, the number of passengers transported through airports is increasing. This, of course, is due to the low transportation prices offered by these carriers. The availability of such prices is related to the measures taken to reduce the operating costs and the successful tariff management policy achieved by the carriers. At the same time, some non-market methods are used to de facto subsidize the activity of carriers. Some intentions are declared or already established for setting up development funds for airports that redirect public funds to the carrier. The state approves airport charges that are lower than the actual costs of covering the fees in order to attract cheap operators. Tax relief is introduced for airlines that do not benefit from these concessions and take unfairly allocated airport charges for all carriers. The present report analyzes the policy related to the activities of low cost airlines on the Bulgarian market, including examples of dumping, inconvenience for passengers related to the step between the seats (quality of service that is due to low prices, something no organization or institution protects). Some suggestions and proposals are given in order to solve the raised problems. 

Perception of Advertising and Expectations of Advertising in terms of Gender Differences

Zuzana Birknerová; Miroslav Frankovský; Lucia Zbihlejová; Valéria Parová

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 92-99
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60294

The aim of this paper is to specify the links between expectations of advertising and perception of advertising according to the gender differences. The fact that individuals create their subjective cognitive image of these advertisement attributes serves as a basis for the conceptualization of this paper. The data were collected from two research samples, 99 respondents (58 women and 41 men) and 206 respondents (113 women and 93 men). The analyses, conducted in two research stages, indicated significant correlations between the selected attributes of expectations of advertising and the factors of subjective perception of advertising. The results also revealed an existence of significant differences in perception of advertising and expectations of advertising between men and women. Women paid more attention to the music and visuals of the advertisement and appreciate the humorous aspects in advertising. They also had greater expectations of advertising – they expect it to be memorable, informative, intelligent, genuine and visually stunning.

Examining the moderating role of corporate social responsibility in the relationship between socially responsible consumption and quality of work life (QWL) of the staff in Social Security Organization

Mahdieh Rahmani; Akram Eghbali

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 64-77
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60192

The main objective of this study was to examine the moderating role of corporate social responsibility in the relationship between socially responsible consumption and quality of work life (QWL) of the staff in Social Security Organization. The research model has been formed using variables such as socially responsible consumption, corporate social responsibility, QWL, and organizational commitment of the staff. Research methodology was a correlation type. The population of this research was the staff of Yazd Social Security Organization. Sampling method was stratified random, where the samples were selected from each class through simple random sampling. A questionnaire was used to collect data through which 290 valid samples were collected. In this study, data were analyzed using SPSS18 software. The relationships between variables and factors were examined by confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling technique using PLS2 Smart software. Moreover, using Sobel test, we have examined the assumption of the mediator role of QWF. The results showed that corporate social responsibility and socially responsible consumption had an impact on the QWL. There was a significant relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and QWL. The results also showed that CSR and socially responsible consumption (SRCO) affected organizational commitment through QWL.

What Did Sap Change? A Market Shaping Analysis

Burak Erkut

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 51-63
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60186

The market for enterprise resource planning (ERP) software was analysed in the contexts of computer science, business models, sociology and history. However, the impact of SAP which has driven the ERP software market with its product innovation was not analysed in the framework of market shaping. Particularly, a new direction within marketing which aims to re-connect it to markets can be an interesting point of departure for the analysis since the way ERP software shaped the markets has similar impacts with the way internet shaped the markets. Using a framework based on three market shaping effects, the results suggested that SAPs impact was mainly on agency costs, transaction costs and network effects. These three points suggest a similarity to the market shaping impact of internet economics.

Studying the Effect of Sales Forces’ Personality Traits on the Customer Relationship Management (Isfahan Asia Insurance Company)

Ahmad Sedaghatnia; Behnaz Rostamian; Ali Nasr Esfahani; Arash Shahin

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 23-30
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60299

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between sales forces’ personality traits and customer relationship management in Asia Insurance Company in the city of Isfahan. The statistical population of the current study includes sales forces of Asia Insurance Company in Isfahan which consists of 170 members. A sample of 120 employees was selected from this population based on the sampling table. To examine the personality traits of the sales forces in this population and measuring its dimensions, a standardized questionnaire of big five model came into use. This questionnaire was distributed among sample members and they were asked to answer the questions. To examine the validity of the questionnaire, the professors and researchers were asked to review and modify the questionnaire. The final version of the questionnaire was prepared after some modifications. Moreover, Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient was used for examining and confirming reliability of the questionnaire. In order to analyze the research data and test the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling method was used in Amos 21. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between sales forces’ personality traits and customer relationship management.

Effects of Personality on Impulsive Buying Behavior: Evidence from a Developing Country

Dania Shakaib Farid; Mazhar Ali

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 31-43
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60197

Normally impulse buying is considered to take place in the presence of extrinsic factors which lure customers into unplanned buying. The role of intrinsic factors in generating impulse buying remains under-researched, especially in the context of a developing country like Pakistan. This study aims to study the impact of personality on impulse buying behavior. The effect of personality on impulse buying is measured through five personality traits, namely Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism-also known as the OCEAN Model. It is an explanatory research study involving 400 people of diverse backgrounds and wide age brackets. Results indicated significant effects of Openness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism and insignificant effect of Agreeableness on Impulse Buying Behavior. This study has valuable implications for Practitioners as well as Academics.

Bulgarian Film Industry: Assessment through Market Mapping

Bilyana Tomova

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 44-50
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2018.60214

This article is based on the annual empirical survey on the mapping of cultural and creative industries conducted by the Observatory of Cultural Economics - Sofia. The survey covers the period 2008–2015, which allows the emergence of major trends in the development of the film industry in Bulgaria. The aim is not only to assess the economic contribution of the film industry, but also the characteristics of cinema in Bulgaria as a market sector by analyzing economic growth, employment, and investment. In this aspect, problems are also addressed in the different stages of creating the value of the product from idea to screen, the analysis reflecting the management of the process, and the role of the state. Beyond the mapping method, through assessment and analysis of the product and environment, factors (legislative, management) and recommendations for sustainable sector development are identified.

The Impact of Packaging on the Competitiveness of Export Products

Mohammad ali Rasoulzadeh

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 384-392
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60311

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of packaging on the competitiveness of the export products in Ardabil province. The population of the study is the factories of the industrial town of Ardabil in which 20 factories were selected randomly. The data collecting tool in this research is a 20-item questionnaire that its questions are tailored to the response and are fitted with a five-point Likert scale. To analyze the obtained information, firstly, the frequency table of each question was formed using the percentage method. The percentage of frequency is calculated and the result of each question are listed below each question. After analyzing each question, we analyze the research hypotheses, which is accompanied by a graphic representation of its results. Input analysis has also been used for inferential analysis. The results showed that there is a meaningful relationship between the amount of good packaging on purchasing decision of customers. There is a meaningful relationship between size and shape of appropriate packaging and sales volume. There is also a meaningful relationship between the factors such as color and design in packaging and sales of products.

Data driven customer experience and the roadmap to deliver happiness

Ahmed Aly Shaban Abdelmoteleb; Suzilawati Kamarudin; Puteri N. E. Nohuddin

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 236-248
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60452

Happiness is a choice, in which individuals have the ability to create lasting and genuine happiness for themselves. They make choices and take actions to be happy, choosing what to wear, what to eat, whom to love, and where to work. It is very subjective to delimit whether our choices are good while others are not but all based on individual profound desire to be happy. In some related work, researchers have found a strong correlation between customer satisfaction, happiness, and organization performance. Many organizations have spent money and effort in innovating and implementing initiatives, which were focusing on increasing customers’ satisfaction; however, customers are not happier today compared to what they were before. Therefore, the need for studying on mechanism of achieving customer happiness is crucial to ensure effectiveness and efficiency of customer service initiatives. In fact, it is important to identify factors that can elevate customer happiness and shift customers from comfort to happiness zone. This will motivate organizations to design products and services that can meet customer needs and exceed customer expectation in every touch point. In UAE, customers come from 202 countries with diverse cultures, religions, habits and ethnicity, which force government, semi-government and private sector to deliver services that not only meet but also exceed customer expectations. Accordingly, the paper will take you through the journey of UAE government for exceeding customer expectations starting from understanding drivers of happiness using a research framework that segment customers in different zones (Trust vs. Control & Stand out vs. Fit in) until quantifying drivers to measure service happiness score.