Issue 4


Slowness Saving the Day of Worldwide Travel and Tourism? Environmental and Sustainability Aspirations of Airline and Business Voyagers, Shared by International and Student Travelers as well as Religious Tourists

Konrad Gunesch

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 292-302
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60429

The paper’s first part analyzes global tourism’s core concerns and responsibilities in the new millennium, one of which is sustainability. Sustainability is shown to be made operational by the triple bottom line, which is analyzed as an internal managerial decision-making and planning tool as well as an external assessment and reporting framework. Key triple bottom line dimensions are presented together with economic, social, and environmental performance and impact measurements via a range of key indicators. The paper’s second part evaluates the concept, forms, and contributions of slow travel and tourism to worldwide sustainability discussions, especially to forms of fast tourism. Slow tourism’s meanings comprise sustainability and environmentalism. As an opposite to slow tourism modes, airline travel has conflicting solutions within the airline and tourism industries, their customer preferences, and the global business environment. Similarly, business travelers’ motivations, decision-making, and beneficiaries have moved environmental and sustainability considerations up on their agendas. Multinational companies’ corporate social responsibility endows them with a special role in branding and marketing their sustainability aspirations. Student and youth traveler numbers increase steadily, corresponding to their market relevance and diversity of motives. Finally, religious tourists occupy a central position in global travel considerations, which impacts pilgrimage locations and ecologies. The paper’s third part shows how fast travel forms and industries can be inspired by slow tourism, especially when combining triple bottom line indicators, corporate social responsibility considerations, and slow travel and tourism philosophies and practices. This combined approach shows potential especially for global tourism’s marketing and branding strategies.

The influence of social media behavior of university students in Lebanon on their purchasing habits: The mediating effect of e-Word-of-Mouth

Annelie Moukaddem Baalbaki; Nadia Jiryes Azzam; Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 303-309
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60267

Consumers are increasingly seeking information through Social Media (SM) platforms to guide their future purchasing decisions. Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) through the ever popular SM, especially among young consumers, can have great influence on consumers’ perception and buying intention. In this paper, we analyze consumer behavior of university students in Lebanon through studying the effect of their SM habits and impact of eWOM on their purchase habits and intentions. SM considered Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat; eWOM refers to recommendations by friends and experts. A conceptual model is presented and tested empirically taking advantage of data collected from different universities. The model tests the mediating effects of eWOM on the relationship between SM usage of students on their purchase intentions of products discussed on SM platforms by friends and experts. A sample of 200 university students in Lebanon who responded to an online survey is used to examine proposal model. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) through the Smart PLS3 software is used to analyze survey data. The preliminary results support the hypothesis that the more time students spend on SM, the more likely they will be influenced by e-WOM by friends and experts which in turn might influence their buying intentions.

Islamic Finance Service Industry and Contemporary Challenges: A Literature Outlook (1987-2016)

Muhammad Asif Khan; Muhammad AfaqHaider; Shujahat Haider Hashmi; Muhammad Atif Khan

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 310-321
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60249

Embryonic Islamic banking industry has documented marvellous growth worldwide since inception; stimulated sound rooted western banking to inculcate and include Shariah driven lucrative products and services as an integral part of corporate segment. Research to date has revealed its unique features and ethos, yet it has to overcome multifarious global impediments. The focus of this study is to encapsulate the enormous challenges Islamic finance service industry has encountered during last three decades. We find the arguments such as complex regulatory and supervisory issues; absence of uniform reporting standards; prudential challenges; misconception among western society pertaining to Islamic banking; scant financial instruments and concurrent money and capital markets; fierce compaction by western banking; lack of consensus among Shariah Scholars; and central governing body that are precarious challenges among others. Therefore, policy makers need to constitute an integrated central regulatory body to congregate speckled Islamic banking practices and to foster the underlying philosophy of Sharia compliance operation along with synchronized and unified standardized worldwide.

Providing the Applicable Model of Training Needs Assessment in Organizations

Ahmadreza Fazel Anvari

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 322-335
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60393

Defining the training needs in organizations is the most important factor in human capital development. The aim of this study was to provide the applicable model of training needs assessment in organizations. The population of the study consisted of 460 employees in some organizations. Simple random sampling was used and the sample size was estimated 210 people using Morgan table. Based on the literature, research, ISO 10015 standard and applicable experience in this area, key indicators of training needs assessment in four dimensions, namely job competencies, organizational objectives, problem solving, and developmental gaps were identified. Using the experts’ opinion, a researcher-made questionnaire consisted of 12 items was developed as the instrument for data collection and the data were analyzed by SPSS. The results of the analysis indicated that all the research objectives were supported. As observed, among the dimensions of model, job competencies and organizational objectives had the highest and the lowest mean, respectively. Also, the findings of the paper indicated how to define the training needs according to this model with practical examples. In addition, defining the training needs according to this model can be used in organizations, industries, and different business to empower the human capitals.

Customer Loyalty: The Effect of Service Quality, Corporate Image, Customer Relationship Marketing and Customer Satisfaction as Intervening Variable-An Empirical Analysis of Bank Customers in Malang City

Hellen Karyose; Widji Astuti; Achmad Ferdiansjah

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 336-347
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60334

This study aimed to analyze the influence of service quality, corporate image, and customer relationship marketing on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The population consisted of 180 bank customers in Malang city. For the analysis of Structural Equation Model (SEM) came into use. The results showed  that service quality, corporate image, and customer relationship marketing influence on customer satisfaction, and service quality, corporate image, and customer relationship marketing influence on customer loyalty. Moreover, customer satisfaction effects on customer loyalty. Customer satisfaction mediated the effect of service quality, corporate image, and customer relationship marketing on customer loyalty.

Identifying and Ranking the Components Affecting the Failure of Knowledge-based Companies in Iran and its Ranking by AHP Technique (The Case Study: Technology and Science Park of Kermanshah)

Donya Gholami; Ali Ramezani

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 348-359
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60380

In the history, the different methods of economic production have been introduced as the dominant method. All of them have a start time, peak time, and wane time and finally, left scene for another method. Today, we live in an era that the knowledge-based economy is introduced as a dominant method of economic production. It can be said that all countries try to improve in this field by introducing their strategies. In the new method, the different countries try to get away of method of industrial mass production and be successful in producing the developed technologies and offering services by following the innovation in the technology. These services and technologies can attract market because of their innovation. To this end, these advanced technologies will capture a major contribution of the GDP revenues. Since a decade ago, by launching technology-science parks, Iran has tried to support the knowledge-based companies to produce and provide goods and high technology services and therefore, get away from the single-product economy and raw materials sale. In this situation, There are challenges in this field. The present study tries to identify the components affecting the failure of knowledge-based companies and their ranking.

An Investigation of the Effect of Relationship Marketing on Customer Gratitude and Consumer Behavior (Case Study: The Dealerships of Saipa Corporation in Ardabil Province)

Somayeh Saebnia; Mohammad Feizi; Mohammad Hasanzadeh

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 360-370
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60209

The aim of dealerships to build a long-term relationship with customers is to make further profit. Today, relationship marketing is accompanied by understanding consumer behavior and meeting their need and according to the norm of mutual relationships, customer gratitude as customer buying behavior is the beginning of a motivation or an affective commitment to compensate seller’s advantages. Therefore, this study attempts to consider the importance of customer in automobile industry and realize the effect of relationship marketing on customer gratitude and consumer behavior in dealerships of Saipa Corporation. The present study is applicable in terms of aim and correlational in terms of descriptive method. The statistical population includes all the customers of dealerships of Saipa Corporation in Ardabil Province. The sample size was calculated through Cochran’s formula (384 customers) and to raise the confidence level, 400 people were selected randomly to answer the questionnaire. In order to analyze the descriptive findings, SPSS 20 Software was applied and to test the hypotheses, LISREL 8.8 Software was used. According to the results, the effect of relationship marketing on customer gratitude (path coefficient = 0.96) and consumer behavior (path coefficient = 0.13) is confirmed, which indicates the positive and significant effect on the measured variable in dealerships of Saipa Corporation in Ardabil Province.

The Impact of the Service Innovativeness on Perceived Overall Service Quality, Customer Loyalty and Perceived Customer Value in Shopping Sites

Emine Senbabaoglu

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 371-383
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60438

Associated with the change of lifestyle, due to reasons such as time constraints, information access, and alternatives comparison easiness, consumers prefer directed shopping on the internet. Shopping is done along with the initiation by the internet, in the scope of study such as website service innovativeness, perceived overall service quality, customer loyalty, and perceived customer value. What are the effects of service innovativeness on perceived overall service quality, customer loyalty, and perceived customer value? In order to answer this question, theoretical and empirical research is structured. From a holistic point of view the results suggest the positive effect of service innovativeness on perceived overall service quality, customer loyalty, and perceived customer value. Website service innovativeness influences behavioural intentions such as perceived overall service quality, customer loyalty, and perceived customer value. Following the examination of the results, the present article discussed the implications for practice and future research.

The Impact of Packaging on the Competitiveness of Export Products

Mohammad ali Rasoulzadeh

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 384-392
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2017.60311

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of packaging on the competitiveness of the export products in Ardabil province. The population of the study is the factories of the industrial town of Ardabil in which 20 factories were selected randomly. The data collecting tool in this research is a 20-item questionnaire that its questions are tailored to the response and are fitted with a five-point Likert scale. To analyze the obtained information, firstly, the frequency table of each question was formed using the percentage method. The percentage of frequency is calculated and the result of each question are listed below each question. After analyzing each question, we analyze the research hypotheses, which is accompanied by a graphic representation of its results. Input analysis has also been used for inferential analysis. The results showed that there is a meaningful relationship between the amount of good packaging on purchasing decision of customers. There is a meaningful relationship between size and shape of appropriate packaging and sales volume. There is also a meaningful relationship between the factors such as color and design in packaging and sales of products.