Volume 3, Issue 2, Spring 2016, Page 97-205

The infrastructure attitude to strategic planning of information technology in organizations

Emad Rezaei; Yazdan Rostami; Maryam Ghafouri; Atefeh Fashkhorani; MohammadAmin Ahmadi

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 97-108
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60363

The strategic planning means the future planning of an
organization; in other words, it refers to the direction that the organization
wants to move in that direction. Strategic planning of the information technology
for any organization is an evidence that the organization’s information
architecture in light of strategic considerations such as mission, objectives,
and priorities of the organization becomes evident and it determines the
necessary administration plan to achieve systems and forms the informational
databases at the organizational level. To put differently, strategic planning of
the information technology charter and the macro program in the field of
information systems are generally considered as the information technology.
Different approaches are used for planning. Now, the dominant approach for developing
the long-term program or for ICT master plan of information technology is an
approach of the organizational architecture or the information technology
architecture. The purpose of this research is a preliminary introduction with an organizational
architecture approach with the means of strategic planning of the information systems.

Typical presentation to evaluate NFC technology in electronic mobile payments

Shima Asadbeigi; Ali Abdollahi; Sajjad Shokohyar

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 109-118
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60287

In recent years, electronic micro payments by cell phones have been possible. Some activities have been done in this field as well. Mobile near field communication (NFC) technology, which is a standard mobile method for connecting electronic devices at near distances, has grabbed a lot of attention in order to pay mobile micro payments and electronic payment services by financial institutions, payment service companies, SIM cards manufacturers and operators. The beneficiary organizations need to meet some requirements such as management preparation. This paper aims to detect different NFC technology uses and study and rank the main factors of success in implementation of this technology in organization by applying analytic hierarchy process. The humanitarian specialists and environmental and technological experts should be considered in order to use NFC technology in mobile payments. Among 81 sub-criteria, security and privacy are the most important factors for implementing NFC technology successfully.

Analyzing the Juridical reasons of corporate social responsibility in private sector with an emphasis on the necessity of paying Khums

Reza Payandeh; Mohammad Taha Kharratha

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 119-129
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60423

Organizations act as a link between the individual and society and are considered as one of the most basic components of social configuration of modern human beings which need society and people to ensure access to basic survival needs. On the other hand, these organizations as legal entities are responsible to be responsive towards the demands of society. The concepts such as corporate social responsibility and its dimensions and components have attracted the attention of many researchers. This study was conducted to analyze the juridical reasons of corporate social responsibility in private sector with an emphasis on the necessity of paying Khums. According to Ahl al-Bayt view, the necessity of Khums in business profitability and all human revenues is simply proved, but the extent of paying Khums has been generally stated and it has not mentioned who should pay this Khums. It is taken directly from the religious texts that the focal point is the profit which is obtained from trade and business and therefore khums is not related to special group or individual. It is not necessary to oblige the tradesman to any religious orders because Khums is obligatory on possessions/profits owned by a person which are achieved from private organizations or not. Regarding the importance of financial gain and the required conditions related to Khums, It seems that everyone who has a profit or revenue will be obliged to pay Khums whether he has real or legal entity.

Exchange development: Preparing the grounds for achievement of resistance economy

Negar Afkandeh

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 130-136
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60309

Some economic conditions in Iran such as presence of stagflation, inappropriateness of business environment, foreign investment decrease, and technological and technical knowledge disconnection of domestic product prepare a ground for activities in resistance economy field. Resistance economy prepares the grounds for the comprehensive growth and development even in the economic pressures and sanctions. Relying on the resistance economy, dependency on foreign countries should be reduced and increasing the self-reliance and the use of domestic products should be emphasized. Undoubtedly, stock market positively affects on manufacturing domestic products and reduces the market liquidity, since growth in manufacturing domestic products will reduce the country’s dependence on some foreign goods and play pivot role in forming the proper consumption pattern in the resistance economy. Therefore, more companies will be established, product and national income will be increased and unemployment will be reduced. Currently, these effects are not obvious in the economy of the country, because the structure of Iran’s financial system is seemingly bank-based not market-based. This descriptive-correlational study aims to investigate the impact of increase in stock market turnover on the disappearance of Iran’s market-oriented economy which results in the formation of resistance economy. To this end, the statistics obtained of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2006 and 2009 were used as statistical sample. The results revealed that the increase in Iran’s stock market turnover emphasized on the vital role of private sector in expanding country’s economy opportunities and prepared the grounds for achievement of resistance economy through increasing domestic product.

Evaluating and comparing the ability to predict the bankruptcy prediction models of Zavgren and Springate in companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange

Ghodratollah Talebnia; Fatemeh Karmozi; Samira Rahimi

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 137-143
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60238

Recent bankruptcy of large companies at international level and volatilities of securities in Iran have highlighted the necessity of evaluating the financial power of companies. One of the evaluating tools is using bankruptcy prediction models. Bankruptcy prediction models are one of the tools for estimating the future condition of companies. The aim of this research is to present theoretical foundations and compare the results of investigating two models of Zavgren (1985) and Springate (1978) in Iran’s exchange market through main and adjusted coefficients according to statistical techniques of Logit and Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA). The data was gathered and tested from 2009 to 2013. The results indicated that the adjusted Springate Model was more efficient than other models in the bankruptcy year.

Measurement of intra-industry trade (ITT) of Iran with ten selective major trading partners using Grubel-Lloyd Index

Muhammad Emadi

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 144-152
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60234

This paper was conducted to measure intra-industry trade of Iran with ten selective major trading partners including the United Arab Emirates, Germany, China, Republic of Korea, Italy, India, Japan, Turkey, Spain, and Singapore using Grubel-Lloyd index. Due to the development of cross-border economic relationships, these countries try to find and present an appropriate model for production, import, and export of goods and identification of business opportunities and comparative advantages. Therefore, intra-industry trade of products helps countries to consider the differences between their real commercial comparative advantages and other countries and then try to find new technologies in their production. It can be found from estimation the average of Iran’s intra-industry trade with its major trading partners that most of Irans trade volume during the studied period belongs to India with an average of 66.43 per cent. In other words, India is the largest trading partner of Iran in terms of intra-industry trade.

Investigating the impact of key dimensions of service quality on customers’ satisfaction and loyalty: Evidences from the restaurant industry in Sudan

Dalia M. E. Diab; Hesham E. Mohammed; Elham Hassam Mansour; Osman Saad

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 153-165
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60459

This paper reports a study that identified the underlying key dimensions of service quality and its impact on consumers’ satisfaction and loyalty within the restaurant context in Sudan using Dineserv model. The study is quantitative and descriptive in nature. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from 4 restaurants in Sudan. Based on the analyses, four factors including assurance, empathy, tangibility, and reliability were the most significant dimensions of service quality that had positive influence on customer satisfaction while assurance, empathy, and tangibility were the most significant dimensions that had positive influence on customers’ loyalty. The results also confirmed the links between service quality dimensions, satisfaction, and loyalty, respectively. The findings of study could be employed by the restaurant managers to improve their marketing strategies.

The study of issuance of stocks in venture companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

Ali Amiri; Hamid Ravanpaknodezh; Akbar Jelodari

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 166-178
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60201

In order to implement the profitable projects, achieve the maximum efficiency, and increase their shareholders, companies may use different types of financial resources in different ways. The ability of companies to identify the internal and external resources for providing capital and financial programs is considered as one of the main factors that affects on the growth and development of the companies. Financing resources and their usage volume are factors that affect on the companies’ operating performance. In this regard, companies and economic institutions can be financially provided from both inside and outside. Companies can issue and sell new common stocks to investors to provide their required financial resources. This study was conducted to investigate the issuance of stocks as one of resources of financing in the companies. Statistical population of this study was active listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. The sample of study was selected among listed companies raising capital through applying stage random sampling and simple random sampling. Sampling was conducted during the period 2008-20013 and finally the sample size including 40 companies were chosen using a Cochran formula. To analyze the obtained information, t-test and correlation coefficient were used. Although the results of the study revealed that there was no significant difference between the internal sources of financing and the issuance of stocks among the studied companies, there is a significant relationship between companies’ issuance of stocks and their size. Companies increase the use of retained earnings and stocks for financing through expanding the size of companies. Also, due to the existence of  relationship between financing and the fixed assets of the companies through issuing the stocks of companies, no statistically significant relationship were observed between financing and companies’ profitability. Finally, there was no significant relationship between financing and future stock returns through the issuance of stocks. 

Sport celebrities multiple use in marketing messages: Example of the Spanish tennis player Rafael Nadal

Arta Antonovica; Javier de Esteban Curiel

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 179-193
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60243

The use of a sport celebrity as a message source is a popular way how to convince many consumers around the world to buy and use different services. In the last decades, we have seen that many sport celebrities in a serial way promote products and services of different companies at the same time or in a sequence. Therefore, there arises a question of message source credibility and trustfulness. The main objective of this research paper is to study the world famous Spanish tennis player’s appearance, Rafael Nadal, as a message source in different companies’ advertisements and the kind of image he creates. In this sense, a content analysis technique and a face-to-face survey technique (328 subjects) have been conducted to know what the consumers’ attitudes towards serial sport endorsers are.

An investigation into the impact of ownership structure on the level of cash holdings in the companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange Market

Kaveh Azinfar; Zahra Shiraseb

Marketing and Branding Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 194-205
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2016.60223

Liquidity of a company is the ability to meet cash commitments before the deadline. Selecting from cash spending or cash holdings by the managers is of great importance for the owners of the company. Various factors can be effective in determining the level of company’s liquidity. Ownership structure of companies is one of these factors which may lead to companies’ behavioral change. This change is derived from monitoring activities by different investors in this structure. This study was an attempt to assess the impact of ownership structure on the level of companies’ cash holdings in creating appropriate ownership in connection with creating the level of cash holdings. In this study, ownership structure has been categorized into four types of institutional ownership, managerial ownership, corporate ownership, and foreign ownership. In this regard, the impact of institutional, managerial, corporate, and foreign variables on the level of cash holdings has been investigated. For every category of ownership, a hypothesis was proposed and its impact on the level of cash holdings was tested. The statistical sample of the research included 96 companies from 2004 to 2013. The statistical method of testing the hypotheses in this study was multiple regressions through panel data. The findings revealed a significant relationship between institutional, managerial, and foreign ownership and the level of cash holdings; however, there was no significant relationship between corporate ownership of the company and the level of cash holdings.