Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter 2021

Crude Oil Price, Interest Rate and Unemployment Nexus in Nigeria: An Application of Toda and Yamamoto Long-Run Causality Procedure

Rabiu Maijama’a; Kabiru Saidu Musa

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60326

This study aims to examine the relationship between crude oil price, interest rate and the
unemployment rate in Nigeria using times series data for the 1991-2019 periods. The
stationarity property of the series was examined using Augmented Dickey and Fuller
(1979) and Elliot, Rothenberg and Stock’s (1996) unit root test. The outcomes of
Augmented Dickey and Fuller indicated a mixture of an order of integration among the
series while Elliot et al.’s (1996) unit root test revealed that all the series are stationary at
the first difference and therefore are said to integrate of order one. The Toda and
Yamamoto long-run granger causality indicated that one-way causality exists flowing
from crude oil price to unemployment rate, unemployment rate to interest rate, population
growth to the unemployment rate, crude oil price to interest rate and population growth
to interest rate alongside two-way causality flowing from population growth to crude oil
price. Therefore, based on the empirical outcomes we recommended that labour will serve
as an efficient substituting factor of production for energy and capital in the case of the
Nigerian economy and Nigerian government should develop both industrial and non
crude oil sectors to create employment opportunities for the unemployed teeming
population as well as increasing the country’s export.

Factor Analysis of Government Performance and Tax Morale in Nigeria

Lateef Ayodele Agbetunde; Lateef Babatunde Adedokun; Musa Olatunji Dawodu

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 17-30
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60327

The paper made a factor analysis of the variables that shape the tax morale of individuals in
developing economies as well as the factors that citizens considered to be important in
assessing government performance. Data from the Afrobarometer Survey 6 Questionnaire
administered on Nigerians was used for the analysis. Desk review of several journal articles
was made to extract the relevant factors used for the study. A collection of variables offered
in the literature as determinants of tax morale and the aspects of government that are measured
when assessing government performance were synthesized as measurement parameters. Both
exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using principal component
analysis. The study established that the data from Afrobarometer Survey 6 on Nigeria was
found reliable with adequate goodness of fits, which is significant for any study. The paper
found six of the items on the questionnaire suitable to measure tax morale and ten other items
suitable as measures of government performance under three dimensions as an improvement
on economic issues, infrastructure provision, and social issues. The paper recommends that
the government and other policymakers should pay sufficient attention to tax morale and the
performance of government, especially adequate provision of food and improving the standard
of living among the poor citizens before attempts at controlling crime.

Effect of Brand Equity on Consumer Behaviour Among Students of Veritas University, Nigeria: A Study of Apple Smartphones

Michael Oyenuga; Agnes Ahungwa; Emmanuel Onoja

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 48-64
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60329

The mobile phone industry is a very innovative segment within the ICT sector, and the smartphone is gradually becoming the standard configuration of mobile devices and currently represents the fastest growing market in the telecoms industry. Previous studies on brand equity tend to focus on telecommunications, banking, hospitality, banking, construction, fast-moving customer goods, etc., while ignoring the education sector. Therefore, the general objective of the study is to evaluate the brand equity of apple smartphones and customer behavior in Abuja. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design. The study used primary data through a questionnaire using 341 samples. Specifically, the objectives of the study were to establish the extent to which brand awareness, brand association, and brand loyalty affect customer behaviour among students of Veritas University. The resutls revealed that brand awareness, brand association, and brand loyalty positively and significantly affect customer behaviour among Veritas University students. It was concluded that when consumers are attached and loyal to a brand, they are likely to make repeat purchases. This only happens when the relationship between the brand and the user is very in-depth and has an emotional connection with the mobile brand. The study recommended that firms interested in extending customer behaviour to repurchase their product categories should pay special attention to brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand association linked to the functions of guarantee, social identification, and status.

Online Shopping Tendency and Customer Trust in Nigerian Service Sector

Idongesit Eshiett

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 65-75
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60330

Conventional shopping affords the customer the convenience of not losing their monies to
hackers and scammers and carrying out a transaction in a familiar shop environment,
irrespective of the shop location. The unprecedented development in telecommunication/
Information Communications Technology (ICT) has made direct purchase and sale of goods
and services possible worldwide using the Internet, an online shopping website in Nigeria. For
example, many customers and prospects engage in multi-billion Naira transactions daily in
Jumia.com.ng and konga.com. The essence of trust in this platform becomes inevitable, based
on the virtual nature of all transactions. This study aims to examine the effect of customer trust
and purchase decisions on online shopping in Nigeria. The study clarifies that internet hopping
could flourish easily where there is less risk factor, proof of effective service quality delivery,
and unbridled evidence of trust in the service providers' ability to deliver. The descriptive
methodology was adopted for the study, and 277 questionnaires were administered to
respondents, mainly online customers of jumia.com.ng. Correlation analysis was used to
analyze the underlying variables of the study. The results revealed that there is a positive
interrelationship between online shopping and trust in Nigerian. The study concludes that online
service providers need to entrench trust amongst customers and exclude all risk factors that
could be inimical to the growth and development of online hopping in Nigeria

Loyal Customers are Attached to Brands. Is this True? What is the Role of Customer Equity and Customer Trust?

Onamusi Abiodun. B; Ayo Mofoluwake. F

Marketing and Branding Research, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 76-86
DOI: 10.33844/mbr.2021.60331

Gaining customer loyalty is key to achieving repeated purchases that have ripple effects on sale revenue, market penetration, and profitability for firms. Can brand attachment guarantee customers’ loyalty? Based on the assumptions of the theory of customer equity, the study evaluated the interactions of brand attachment, customer loyalty, customer equity, and customer loyalty, focusing on Nigeria's telecommunication industry. A survey-based approach to research with 1,035 active subscribers of five telecommunication companies in Nigeria was examined. Regression analysis was used to test the four-way hypotheses formulated in the study. Overall, the result showed that brand attachment had a positive and significant effect on customer loyalty. However, the link between brand attachment and customer loyalty was explained through customer trust to suggest a full mediation effect. Further analysis revealed that customer trust explained significant variation in customer equity. The study concluded that customer trust is a critical factor in achieving the benefit of brand attachment and customer equity. The study recommended that the management of the telecommunication companies in Nigeria invest significant resources to secure their customers' trust and adhere to the dimension of value, brand, and relationship equity given their concomitant effect on customer satisfaction and loyalty.